“Professor” and “teacher” are used differently in Spanish and English.
A professor (un catedrático) works in a university and he is the most senor academic person in the department.
For example, Lancaster University in England will have a “Economics Professor” (un catedrático de economía). You can also write Professor of Economics. The other academic teaching persons in a university are known as lecturers.
A person can be awarded, appointed to, or offered a “professorship”. Here is an example: Mr. Sanchez is going to be appointed to a professorship” (va a ser nombrado a una cátedra).
What about the word “teacher”? A teacher works in a school. If it be a college (a college is for those 16 or older that usually offers specialist courses for some professions) the person that gives classes is known as a “lecturer”.